Overview

International studies

CHEERS

In contrast to surveys specific only to single higher education institutions the CHEERS study is a large-scale international survey, which was initiated and coordinated by INCHER-Kassel from 1998 to 2001. More than 40,000 higher education graduates in Europe and Japan have contributed important information study design by answering a questionnaire on the relation between higher education training and work three to four years after graduation. The CHEERS survey (Careers After Higher Education - an European Research Study) was mainly financed by the European Union in the framework of funding socio-economic research (TSER). Nine countries of the European Union: • Austria, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, Spain, United Kingdom), • the EFTA country Norway, • one Central and Eastern European country (Czech Republic) and • Japan as an country outside of Europe participated. The survey was done through an extensive questionnaire (16 pages, about 600 variables), which touched many areas: study, course of study, assessment of study conditions, transition to work, qualification and usage of qualifications, relation between study and work, working conditions (salary, work time, kind of contract), job satisfaction, further training, regional and international mobility, social background and further characteristics.

Major publication of the CHEERS study:

Schomburg, Harald and Teichler, Ulrich: Higher Education and Graduate Employment in Europe. Results of Graduates Surveys from 12 Countries. Dordrecht: Springer, Higher Education Dynamics, 2006.

Teichler, Ulrich (ed.): Careers of University Graduates. Views and Experiences in Comparative Perspective. Dordrecht: Springer, Higher Education Dynamics, 2007.

More information on the web site: http://www.qtafi.de/qtafi/index.php/cheers-european-graduate-survey

REFLEX

In the year 2004 the REFLEX project started as a continuation of the CHEERS study with some changed topics centred around a survey of about 30,000 higher education graduates in those countries that already participated in the CHEERS survey, as well as Belgium, Poland and Switzerland. There were also parallel surveys in Estonia, Russia and several Latin American countries (PROFLEX). The REFLEX project was financed, among other sources, from funds of the 6th framework of the European Union as a Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP). The REFLEX project analyzed the developments in the relations between higher education and work in Europe. It takes on the challenges of effective higher education training, which are seen as more and more important because of the development towards a knowledge society and concentrates upon three linked questions: (1) Which competencies do higher education graduates need to adequately fulfil work tasks in this knowledge society? (2) Which role do higher education institutions play in helping the graduates develop these competencies? (3) Which conflicts result from graduates, higher education institutions, employers and other agents trying to reach their own goals and how can these conflicts be solved? The REFLEX survey was methodically very similar to the CHEERS survey in the choice of targeted graduates, though in REFLEX the graduates four to five years after graduating were included.

Major publication of the REFLEX study:

Allen, Jim and van der Velden, Rolf (Hg.): The Flexible Professional in the Knowledge Society. New Challenges for Higher Education. Dordrecht: Springer, Higher Education Dynamics, Vol. 35/2011.

Web site: http://roa.sbe.maastrichtuniversity.nl/?portfolio=reflex-international-survey-higher-education-graduates

See also the HEGESCO project: http://www.hegesco.org/

Descriptive statistics: http://www.decowe.org/static/uploaded/htmlarea/finalreportshegesco/Hegesco_Statistical_Outlook.pdf

Major report: Jim Allen and Rolf Van der Velden: Report on the Large-Scale Graduate Survey: Competencies and Early Labour Market Careers of Higher Education Graduates. http://www.decowe.org/static/uploaded/htmlarea/finalreportshegesco/Competencies_and_Early_Labour_Market_Careers_of_HE_Graduates.pdf

Austria

No regular tracer studies

Austria participated in the international tracer studies CHEERS and REFLEX.

Belgium

No regular tracer studies

Belgium/Flanders participated in the international tracer study REFLEX.

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Implementation of tracer studies in the context of the CONGRAD project: http://www.congrad.org

Croatia

No regular tracer studies

Czech Republic

No regular tracer studies

Czech Republic participated in the international tracer studies CHEERS and REFLEX.

Denmark

No regular tracer studies

Estonia-HE

No regular tracer studies

Estonia participated in the international tracer study REFLEX.

Finland-HE

Regular tracer studies of institutions

Finland participated in the international tracer studies CHEERS and REFLEX.

France-HE

Regular tracer studies

Giret, Jean-François; Guégnard, Christine and Michot, Claire: The Vocationalisation of University Programmes in France: Its Consequences for Employability and Mobility. In: Schomburg, Harald and Teichler, Ulrich (eds.): Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Europe. Key Results of the Bologna Process. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers 2011, 113-128.

CEREQ National Graduate Surveys

Web site: http://www.cereq.fr/index.php/menus/pied_de_page/base_de_donnees/Enquetes-d-insertion-Generation

France participated in the international tracer studies CHEERS and REFLEX.

Germany-HE

Regular tracer studies

Since 1989 every fourth graduation age-group of first degree graduates was interviewed by the Higher Education Information System GmbH (HIS). 6,000 to 12,000 first degree graduates participated (see Briedis 2007). The surveys take place about one year after graduation and are complemented by a survey five years after graduation. In single cases HIS GmbH has also conducted regional surveys (e.g. in 2001 state specific surveys in Brandenburg and North Rhine-Westphalia). HIS changed in the year 2013 the name to DZHW- Deutsches Zentrum für Hochschul- und Wissenschaftsforschung GmbH (German Centre for Research on Higher Education and Science Studies) (see http://www.dzhw.eu/english).

Schomburg, Harald: Bachelors Graduates in Germany: International Mobil, Smooth Transition and Professional Success. In: Schomburg, Harald and Teichler, Ulrich (eds.): Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Europe. Key Results of the Bologna Process. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers 2011, 89-110.

Schomburg, Harald and Teichler, Ulrich: “Increasing Potentials of Alumni Research for Curriculum Reforms : Some Experiences from a German Research Institute”. In Weerts, David, J. and Vidal, Javier (eds.): Enhancing Alumni Research. European and American Perspectives. San Francisco: Jossey Bass 2005 (New Directions for Institutional Research, Nr. 126), 31-48.

Web site of the DZHW/HIS tracer studies: http://www.dzhw.eu/ab22

Web site of the KOAB tracer studies: http://koab.uni-kassel.de/en/koab.html

Web site of the Bavarian tracer studies: http://www.bap.ihf.bayern.de/

Germany participated in the international tracer studies CHEERS and REFLEX.

Germany-VET

BIBB school-leaver surveys; "The Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (BIBB) carries out regular surveys of school leavers from general education and from part-time and full-time vocational schools. The main theme of these surveys is young people's vocational orientations and occupational choices (i.e. their eventual destinations)." http://www.bibb.de/en/wlk30743.htm

Greece

No regular tracer studies

Hungary

Regular tracer studies

Kerégyártó, Sandor (ed.): Hungarian Graduates 2011. Education 2013.

Kiss, László and Veroszta, Zsuzsanna: Bachelor Graduates in Hungary in the Transitional Period of Higher Education System. In: Schomburg, Harald and Teichler, Ulrich (eds.): Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Europe. Key Results of the Bologna Process. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers 2011, 129-142.

Ireland

No regular tracer studies

Italy

Regular tracer studies

Cammelli, Andrea; Antonelli, Gilberto; Francia, Angelo di; Gasperoni, Giancarlo and Sgarzi, Matteo Mixed Outcomes of the Bologna Process in Italy. In: Schomburg, Harald and Teichler, Ulrich (eds.): Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Europe. Key Results of the Bologna Process. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers 2011, 143-170.

Cammelli, Andrea: 14th ALMA LAUREA Report on Graduates’ Employment Conditions. http://www.almalaurea.it/sites/almalaurea.it/files/docs/universita/occupazione/occupazione10/sintesi_en.pdf

Web site: https://www.almalaurea.it/en)

Italy participated in the international tracer studies CHEERS and REFLEX.

Lithuania

No regular tracer studies

Lithuania participated in the international tracer study REFLEX/HEGESCO.

Macedonia

No regular tracer studies

Montenegro

Implementation of tracer studies in the context of the CONGRAD project: http://www.congrad.org

Netherlands

Regular tracer studies in VET and HE

Regular school leaver surveys in the Netherlands: "The school leaver surveys are designed to function as a monitoring instrument for the transition from school to work, covering the full breadth of the Dutch education system. The statistics generated by these surveys contain information on labour market outcomes, competencies and subsequent study activities." http://www.roa.unimaas.nl/nw_schoolleaversurveystatistics.htm

Main publication: http://www.roa.nl/pdf_publications/2013/ROA_R_2013_7.pdf

Allen, Jim and Coenen, Johann: Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in the Netherlands. In: Schomburg, Harald and Teichler, Ulrich (eds.): Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Europe. Key Results of the Bologna Process. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers 2011, 171-184.

Web site in Dutch: http://www.roa.unimaas.nl/sis/index.htm

The Netherlands participated in the international tracer studies CHEERS and REFLEX.

Norway

Regular tracer studies

Liv Anne Støren, Jannecke Wiers-Jenssen and Clara Åse Arnesen: Employability and Mobility of Norwegian Graduates Post Bologna. In: Schomburg, Harald and Teichler, Ulrich (eds.): Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Europe. Key Results of the Bologna Process. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers 2011, 185-208.

Norway participated in the international tracer studies CHEERS and REFLEX.

Poland - HE

No regular tracet studies.

Gabriela Grotkowska: The Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Poland. In: Schomburg, Harald and Teichler, Ulrich (eds.): Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Europe. Key Results of the Bologna Process. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers 2011, 211-228.

Poland participated in the international tracer study REFLEX/HEGESCO.

Portugal

No regular tracer studies

Portugal participated in the international tracer study REFLEX.

Romania

No regular tracer studies

Implementation of Institutional Tracer Studies at all Universities 2010-2012

 The first phase
•    addressed graduates that finished their studies in 2005 and 2009
•    55 public and private universities participated
•    during four contact stages, from November 2010 to March 2011, each university invited its graduates to fill in the questionnaire
•    one invitation and three reminders were sent by mail and e-mail
•    the filling in of the questionnaire ended on 31st March 2011, with 39 293 respondents.

The second phase
•    addressed graduates that finished their studies in 2006 and 2010
•    42 public and private universities participated, using the updated questionnaire
•    it had five contact stage, unfolded between 2 April 2012 - 30 April 2012
•    one invitation and four reminders were sent by e-mail and only optionally by mail
•    new contact methods were used: short message invitations sent to graduates with a valid mobile number, online self-registration form available on the project’s website
•    the contact process was implemented with the help of an online platform, developed by UEFISCDI, which facilitated the automatic sending of emails and responses’ centralization
•    the filling in of the questionnaire ended on June 2012, with 9.294 respondents.
Source: http://www.absolvent-univ.ro

Serbia

No regular tracer studies

Implementation of tracer studies in the context of the CONGRAD project: http://www.congrad.org

Slovenia

No regular tracer studies

Slovenia participated in the international tracer study REFLEX/HEGESCO.

Spain-HE

Regular tracer studies in some regions

Mora, José-Ginés and Vidal, Javier: The Emerging Uses of Alumni Research in Spain. In: Weerts, David, J. and Vidal, Javier (eds.): Enhancing Alumni Research. European and American Perspectives. San Francisco: Jossey Bass 2005 (New Directions for Institutional Research, 126), 19-29.

Spain participated in the international tracer studies CHEERS and REFLEX.

Sweden

No regular tracer studies

Sweden participated in the international tracer studies CHEERS and REFLEX.

Switzerland-HE

Regular tracer studies; census of every second cohort; panel: one year and five years after graduation

Web site of the regular national tracer study system: http://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/portal/en/index/infothek/erhebungen__quellen/blank/blank/bha/00.html Many publications online available, e.g. BFS Statistik der Schweiz (2015): Hochschulabsolventinnen und Hochschulabsolventen auf dem Arbeitsmarkt. Erste Ergebnisse der Längsschnittbefragung 2013. Neuchâtel. http://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/portal/de/index/themen/15/22/publ.html?publicationID=5864

Switzerland participated in the international tracer study REFLEX.

Turkey

No regular tracer studies

Turkey participated in the international tracer study REFLEX/HEGESCO.

United Kingdom

Regular tracer studies

Brennan, John; Williams, Ruth and Woodley, Alan: Alumni studies in the United Kingdom. In: Weerts, David and Vidal, Javier (eds.): Special Issue: Enhancing Alumni Research: European and American Perspectives San Francisco: Jossey-Bass 2005 (New Directions for Institutional Research; 126), pp. 83-94.

Little, Brenda: The UK Bachelors Degree – A Sound Basis for Flexible Engagement with an Unregulated Labour Market? In: Schomburg, Harald and Teichler, Ulrich (eds.): Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Europe. Key Results of the Bologna Process. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers 2011, 231-252.

United kingdom participated in the international tracer studies CHEERS and REFLEX.